Occupational Mapping

Gender Segregation by industry, occupation and employment contract

The WAVE research team at Cardiff University have undertaken a “mapping” of working patterns, gender, occupations and pay in Wales and the full report is available here in English and Welsh. The appendix also contains linked technical tables for further analysis*.

The uneven distribution of jobs between men and women in the public, private and voluntary sectors of the economy, and in different business areas (energy, transport, finance, retail etc) is known as horizontal gender segregation.

Working in the same business areas but working in quite different jobs and occupations, and at different levels of the hierarchy, is known as vertical gender segregation.

Being employed on different employment contracts – permanent/ temporary/ fixed term, casual, and full or part time is known as contract segregation by gender.

It is these factors in combination; working in different places, jobs, grades and on different employment contract types that create large pay disparities by gender.

Men hold nearly two thirds (64%) of all the available full time jobs in Wales, while women hold 4/5th (80%) of all the available part time jobs in Wales.

Out of the 9 major occupational groups, men and women work in roughly equal proportions only in the Professions, Associate Professional and Technical roles and in Elementary occupations.

Administration and secretarial, personal service, and sales and customer service jobs are overwhelmingly worked by women (over half of whom work part time in these low paid jobs).

Men hold two thirds of Senior Manager and Officials posts, 91% of all Skilled Trades jobs and 86% of all jobs in Process and Plant work.

To address gender disparities in pay, WAVE at Cardiff University is researching the structure of the labour market in Wales. We are also considering the issue of low pay in Wales, the low value attributed to ‘women’s work’ particularly in child care and elderly care, the association of part time work with low graded, low hours and low paid work, the lack of available part time work in higher graded jobs, and the growing casual workforce, most of whom are women.

* Source: ONS: Annual Population Survey in Alison Parken, Eva Pocher and Rhys Davies “Working Patterns in Wales: Gender, Occupations and Pay”.